Multiple mental representations in picture processing
【Abstract】 This article investigates whether goal-directed learning of pictures leads to multiple mental representations which are differently useful for different purposes. The paper further investigates the effects of prompts on picture processing. 136 undergraduate students were presented maps of a fictitious city. One half of the participants were instructed to learn their map as preparation to draw it from memory as precisely as possible (PrepDraw), which should stimulate the creation of an elaborated surface representation. The other half were instructed to learn the map as preparation for finding the shortest traffic connection from various locations to other locations (PrepConnect), which should stimulate the construction of a task-oriented deep-structure representation (mental model). Within both experimental groups, one-third of the participants received the map without prompts. Another third received the map with survey prompts (stimulating processing of what is where), and the final third received the map with connect prompts (stimulating processing of how train stations are connected). In the following test phase, participants received a recognition task, a recall task, and an inference task. For recognition and recall, two surface structure scores (extent, accuracy) and two deep structure scores (extent, accuracy) were calculated. The inference task served also to indicate deep structure accuracy. The PrepDraw group outperformed the PrepConnect group in terms of surface structure related variables, whereas the PrepConnect group outperformed the PrepDraw group in terms of deep structure-related variables. Map processing was not enhanced by prompts aligned with the instruction, but non-aligned prompts tended to interfere with learning.
【Author】 Wolfgang Schnotz, Georg Hauck, Neil H. Schwartz
【Journal】 Psychological Research(IF：1) Time：2021-06-11